DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO http://amcrasto.wix.com/anthony-melvin-crasto/apps/blog DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO en Thu, 23 Aug 2012 23:48:26 GMT Fri, 24 Nov 2017 07:46:00 GMT 60 4,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydro-1H-6,10-methanopyrazino[2,3-h][3]benzazepine-2,3-dione. http://amcrasto.wix.com/anthony-melvin-crasto/apps/blog/4678910-hexahydro-1h-610-methanopyrazino23-h3benzazepine-23 <p> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <img alt="An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is scipharm-2012-80-329f2.jpg" data-orig-src="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3383220/bin/scipharm-2012-80-329f2.jpg" height="492" src="https://images-blogger-opensocial.googleusercontent.com/gadgets/proxy?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC3383220%2Fbin%2Fscipharm-2012-80-329f2.jpg&amp;container=blogger&amp;gadget=a&amp;rewriteMime=image%2F*" style="cursor: move;" width="640"></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> Chemical structures of Varenicline Tartrate and degradant product (DP-I).........4,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydro-1<em>H</em>-6,10-methanopyrazino[2,3-<em>h</em>][3]benzazepine-2,3-dione.</p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <img alt="An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is scipharm-2012-80-329f4.jpg" data-orig-src="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3383220/bin/scipharm-2012-80-329f4.jpg" src="https://images-blogger-opensocial.googleusercontent.com/gadgets/proxy?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC3383220%2Fbin%2Fscipharm-2012-80-329f4.jpg&amp;container=blogger&amp;gadget=a&amp;rewriteMime=image%2F*" style="cursor: move;"></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> (A)&nbsp;<sup>1</sup>H NMR spectrum of DP-I. (B) Proton decoupled&nbsp;<sup>13</sup>C NMR spectrum of DP-I.</p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <img alt="An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is scipharm-2012-80-329f5.jpg" data-orig-src="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3383220/bin/scipharm-2012-80-329f5.jpg" src="https://images-blogger-opensocial.googleusercontent.com/gadgets/proxy?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC3383220%2Fbin%2Fscipharm-2012-80-329f5.jpg&amp;container=blogger&amp;gadget=a&amp;rewriteMime=image%2F*" style="cursor: move;"></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> UHPLC-ToF MS<sup>+</sup>&nbsp;of DP-I.</p> <div id="__p22" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <p style="margin: 0px;"> &nbsp;</p> </div> <div id="__p22" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <p style="margin: 0px;"> &nbsp;</p> </div> <div id="__p22" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <p style="margin: 0px;"> <font color="#ff0000" data-blogger-escaped-style="color: red;">The impurity obtained as pale white crystals. mp 71–73.&nbsp;</font></p> </div> <div id="__p22" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <p style="margin: 0px;"> <font color="#ff0000" data-blogger-escaped-style="color: red;">RP-UHPLC, tR = 1.8 min (98.5% purity).</font></p> </div> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <br> <font color="#ff0000" data-blogger-escaped-style="color: red;">MS (ESI, 70 eV): [M + H<sup>+</sup>] m/z 244.&nbsp;</font></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <br> <font color="#ff0000" data-blogger-escaped-style="color: red;">FT-IR (KBr), v, cm<sup>−1</sup>&nbsp;3371, 3319, 3279, 3173, 3005, 2808, 1696, 1678, 1588, 1406, 1388, 1338, 1305, 1264, 1135, 1067, 873, 790, 680, 569, 485.</font></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <br> <font color="#ff0000" data-blogger-escaped-style="color: red;"><sup>1</sup>H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-<em>d</em><em><sub>6</sub></em>&nbsp;<em>+</em>D<sub>2</sub>O, TMS): δ 7.2 (s, 2H, H-7,8), 3.1–3.4 (m, 6H, H-11,13,14 &amp; 16),2.3 (m, 1H, H-12), 2.0 (d, 1H, 11.2 Hz, H-12).</font></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <br> <font color="#ff0000" data-blogger-escaped-style="color: red;"><sup>13</sup>C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-<em>d</em><em><sub>6</sub></em>, TMS): δ 173.8 (C-2,3), 155.1 (C-5,6), 137.6 (C-9,10), 125.1 (C-7,8), 38.8 (C-11), 37.9 (C-12), 38.8 (C-13), 45.8 (C-14), 48.6 (C-16).</font></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <br> <font color="#ff0000" data-blogger-escaped-style="color: red;">UHPLC ToF MS+: m/z [M + H<sup>+</sup>].Calcd for C<sub>13</sub>H<sub>13</sub>N<sub>3</sub>O<sub>2</sub>: 244.1086; found: 244.1082.</font></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> &nbsp;</p> <div class="p p-last" id="__p23" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <p style="margin: 0px;"> Based on the above spectral data, the molecular formula of DP-I is C<sub>13</sub>H<sub>13</sub>N<sub>3</sub>O<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;and the corresponding structure was characterized as 4,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydro-1<em>H</em>-6,10-methanopyrazino[2,3-<em>h</em>][3]benzazepine-2,3-dione.</p> </div> <table class="fm-citation-from no_top_margin half_rhythm" style="font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="cell-from"> <p style="margin: 0px;"> PMC full text:</p> </td> <td class="cell-citation"> <div> <p style="margin: 0px;"> <a class="int-reflink" data-blogger-escaped-target="mainwindow" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3383220/"><font class="cit">Sci Pharm. 2012 Apr-Jun; 80(2): 329–336.</font></a></p> </div> <div> <p style="margin: 0px;"> <font class="fm-vol-iss-date">Published online 2012 Mar 20.&nbsp;</font><font class="doi">doi:&nbsp;&nbsp;<a data-blogger-escaped-target="pmc_ext" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.3797%2Fscipharm.1201-08">10.3797/scipharm.1201-08</a></font></p> </div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1201-08">http://dx.doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1201-08</a></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <img alt="An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is scipharm-2012-80-329f2.jpg" data-orig-src="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3383220/bin/scipharm-2012-80-329f2.jpg" height="492" src="https://images-blogger-opensocial.googleusercontent.com/gadgets/proxy?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC3383220%2Fbin%2Fscipharm-2012-80-329f2.jpg&amp;container=blogger&amp;gadget=a&amp;rewriteMime=image%2F*" style="cursor: move;" width="640"></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> Chemical structures of Varenicline Tartrate and degradant product (DP-I).........4,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydro-1<em>H</em>-6,10-methanopyrazino[2,3-<em>h</em>][3]benzazepine-2,3-dione.</p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <img alt="An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is scipharm-2012-80-329f4.jpg" data-orig-src="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3383220/bin/scipharm-2012-80-329f4.jpg" src="https://images-blogger-opensocial.googleusercontent.com/gadgets/proxy?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC3383220%2Fbin%2Fscipharm-2012-80-329f4.jpg&amp;container=blogger&amp;gadget=a&amp;rewriteMime=image%2F*" style="cursor: move;"></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> (A)&nbsp;<sup>1</sup>H NMR spectrum of DP-I. (B) Proton decoupled&nbsp;<sup>13</sup>C NMR spectrum of DP-I.</p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <img alt="An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is scipharm-2012-80-329f5.jpg" data-orig-src="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3383220/bin/scipharm-2012-80-329f5.jpg" src="https://images-blogger-opensocial.googleusercontent.com/gadgets/proxy?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC3383220%2Fbin%2Fscipharm-2012-80-329f5.jpg&amp;container=blogger&amp;gadget=a&amp;rewriteMime=image%2F*" style="cursor: move;"></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> UHPLC-ToF MS<sup>+</sup>&nbsp;of DP-I.</p> <div id="__p22" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <p style="margin: 0px;"> &nbsp;</p> </div> <div id="__p22" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <p style="margin: 0px;"> &nbsp;</p> </div> <div id="__p22" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <p style="margin: 0px;"> <font color="#ff0000" data-blogger-escaped-style="color: red;">The impurity obtained as pale white crystals. mp 71–73.&nbsp;</font></p> </div> <div id="__p22" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <p style="margin: 0px;"> <font color="#ff0000" data-blogger-escaped-style="color: red;">RP-UHPLC, tR = 1.8 min (98.5% purity).</font></p> </div> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <br> <font color="#ff0000" data-blogger-escaped-style="color: red;">MS (ESI, 70 eV): [M + H<sup>+</sup>] m/z 244.&nbsp;</font></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <br> <font color="#ff0000" data-blogger-escaped-style="color: red;">FT-IR (KBr), v, cm<sup>−1</sup>&nbsp;3371, 3319, 3279, 3173, 3005, 2808, 1696, 1678, 1588, 1406, 1388, 1338, 1305, 1264, 1135, 1067, 873, 790, 680, 569, 485.</font></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <br> <font color="#ff0000" data-blogger-escaped-style="color: red;"><sup>1</sup>H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-<em>d</em><em><sub>6</sub></em>&nbsp;<em>+</em>D<sub>2</sub>O, TMS): δ 7.2 (s, 2H, H-7,8), 3.1–3.4 (m, 6H, H-11,13,14 &amp; 16),2.3 (m, 1H, H-12), 2.0 (d, 1H, 11.2 Hz, H-12).</font></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <br> <font color="#ff0000" data-blogger-escaped-style="color: red;"><sup>13</sup>C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-<em>d</em><em><sub>6</sub></em>, TMS): δ 173.8 (C-2,3), 155.1 (C-5,6), 137.6 (C-9,10), 125.1 (C-7,8), 38.8 (C-11), 37.9 (C-12), 38.8 (C-13), 45.8 (C-14), 48.6 (C-16).</font></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <br> <font color="#ff0000" data-blogger-escaped-style="color: red;">UHPLC ToF MS+: m/z [M + H<sup>+</sup>].Calcd for C<sub>13</sub>H<sub>13</sub>N<sub>3</sub>O<sub>2</sub>: 244.1086; found: 244.1082.</font></p> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> &nbsp;</p> <div class="p p-last" id="__p23" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <p style="margin: 0px;"> Based on the above spectral data, the molecular formula of DP-I is C<sub>13</sub>H<sub>13</sub>N<sub>3</sub>O<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;and the corresponding structure was characterized as 4,6,7,8,9,10-hexahydro-1<em>H</em>-6,10-methanopyrazino[2,3-<em>h</em>][3]benzazepine-2,3-dione.</p> </div> <table class="fm-citation-from no_top_margin half_rhythm" style="font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="cell-from"> <p style="margin: 0px;"> PMC full text:</p> </td> <td class="cell-citation"> <div> <p style="margin: 0px;"> <a class="int-reflink" data-blogger-escaped-target="mainwindow" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3383220/"><font class="cit">Sci Pharm. 2012 Apr-Jun; 80(2): 329–336.</font></a></p> </div> <div> <p style="margin: 0px;"> <font class="fm-vol-iss-date">Published online 2012 Mar 20.&nbsp;</font><font class="doi">doi:&nbsp;&nbsp;<a data-blogger-escaped-target="pmc_ext" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.3797%2Fscipharm.1201-08">10.3797/scipharm.1201-08</a></font></p> </div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin: 0px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-size: medium;"> <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1201-08">http://dx.doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1201-08</a></p> Fri, 29 Jul 2016 13:53:23 GMT dfa649d0-310e-4006-a848-ac34f5099006 ENDO EXO STORY.......cis-norborene-5,6-endo-dicarboxylic anhydride http://amcrasto.wix.com/anthony-melvin-crasto/apps/blog/endo-exo-storycis-norborene-56-endo-dicarboxylic <h3 class="post-title entry-title" itemprop="name" style="margin: 0px; position: relative; font-weight: normal; font-size: 30px; font-family: Georgia, Utopia, 'Palatino Linotype', Palatino, serif; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); background-color: rgb(255, 255, 229);"> &nbsp;</h3> <div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2360525005200498575" itemprop="description articleBody" style="width: 558px; font-size: 14px; line-height: 1.5; position: relative; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, Utopia, 'Palatino Linotype', Palatino, serif; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 229);"> <div dir="ltr" trbidi="on"> <br /> <img alt="6" data-pinit="registered" src="http://nurul.kimia.upi.edu/arsipkuliah/web2013/1100897/Konsep%20Alder-Diels_clip_image006.jpg" style="padding: 8px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); -webkit-box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;" /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <span style="color: red;">You will react cyclopentadiene with maleic anhydride to form the Diels-Alder product below. This Diels-Alder reaction produces almost solely the&nbsp;<em>endo</em>&nbsp;isomer upon reaction at ambient temperature.</span> <br /> <br /> <br /> <img alt="12" data-pinit="registered" src="http://nurul.kimia.upi.edu/arsipkuliah/web2013/1100897/Konsep%20Alder-Diels_clip_image012.jpg" style="padding: 8px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); -webkit-box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;" /> <br /> <br /> <span style="color: blue;">The preference for&nbsp;<em>endo</em>–stereochemistry is “observed” in most Diels-Alder reactions. The fact that the more hindered&nbsp;<em>endo</em>&nbsp;product is formed puzzled scientists until Woodward, Hoffmann, and Fukui used molecular orbital theory to explain that overlap of the&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;orbitals on the substituents on the dienophile with&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;orbitals on the diene is favorable, helping to bring the two molecules together.</span> <br /> <br /> <span style="color: blue;">Hoffmann and Fukui shared the 1981 Nobel Prize in chemistry for their molecular orbital explanation of this and other organic reactions. In the illustration below, notice the favorable overlap (matching light or dark lobes) of the diene and the substituent on the dienophile in the formation of the&nbsp;<em>endo</em>&nbsp;product:</span> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <span style="color: yellow;"><img alt="8" data-pinit="registered" height="192" src="http://nurul.kimia.upi.edu/arsipkuliah/web2013/1100897/Konsep%20Alder-Diels_clip_image008.jpg" style="padding: 8px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); -webkit-box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;" width="400" /></span> <br /> <br /> <br /> <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 255);">Oftentimes, even though the&nbsp;<em>endo</em>&nbsp;product is formed initially, an&nbsp;<em>exo</em>&nbsp;isomer will be isolated from a Diels-Alder reaction. This occurs because the&nbsp;<em>exo</em>&nbsp;isomer, having less steric strain than the&nbsp;<em>Endo</em>&nbsp;, is more stable, and because the Diels-Alder reaction is often reversible under the reaction conditions. In a reversible reaction, the product is formed, reverts to starting material, and forms again many times before being isolated.</span> <br /> <br /> <span style="color: lime;">The more stable the product, the less likely it will be to revert to the starting material. The isolation of an&nbsp;<em>exo</em>&nbsp;product from a Diels-Alder reaction is an example of an important concept: thermodynamic&nbsp;<em>vs</em>&nbsp;kinetic control of product composition. The first formed product in a reaction is called the kinetic product. If the reaction is not reversible under the conditions used, the kinetic product will be isolated. However, if the first formed product is not the most stable product and the reaction is reversible under the conditions used, then the most stable product, called the thermodynamic product, will often be isolated.</span> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> The NMR spectrum of&nbsp; <em>cis</em>-5-norbornene-2,3- <em>endo</em>-dicarboxylic anhydride is given below: <br /> <img alt="16" data-pinit="registered" height="313" src="http://nurul.kimia.upi.edu/arsipkuliah/web2013/1100897/Konsep%20Alder-Diels_clip_image016.jpg" style="padding: 8px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); -webkit-box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; color: yellow; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;" width="400" /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <b style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(46, 50, 54); font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px;">C<i style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">is</i>-Norbornene-5,6-<i style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">endo</i>-dicarboxylic anhydride&nbsp;</b> <br /> <span style="color: orange;"><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px;">Cyclopentadiene was previously prepared through the cracking of dicyclopentadiene and kept under cold conditions.&nbsp; In a 25 mL Erlenmeyer flask, maleic anhydride (1.02 g, 10.4 mmol) and ethyl acetate (4.0 mL) were combined, swirled, and slightly heated until completely dissolved.&nbsp; To the mixture, ligroin (4 mL) was added and mixed thoroughly until dissolved.&nbsp; Finally, cyclopentadiene (1 mL, 11.9 mmol) was added to the mixture and mixed extensively.&nbsp; The reaction was cooled to room temperature and placed into an ice bath until crystallized.&nbsp; The crystals were isolated through filtration in a Hirsch funnel.&nbsp; The product had the following properties: 0.47 g (27.6% yield) mp: 163-164 &deg;C (lit: 164 &deg;C).&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><sup style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; line-height: 28px;">1</sup><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px;">H NMR (CDCl</span><sub style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; line-height: 28px;">3</sub><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px;">, 300 MHz) δ: 6.30 (dd,&nbsp;</span><i style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px;">J=</i><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px;">1.8 Hz, 2H), 3.57 (dd,&nbsp;</span><i style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px;">J=</i><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px;">7.0 Hz, 2H), 3.45 (m, 2H), 1.78 (dt,&nbsp;</span><i style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px;">J=</i><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px;">9.0,1.8 Hz, 1H), 1.59 (m, 1H) ppm.&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><sup style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; line-height: 28px;">13</sup><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px;">C NMR (CDCl</span><sub style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; line-height: 28px;">3</sub><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px;">, 75Hz) δ: 171.3, 135.5, 52.7, 47.1, 46.1 ppm.&nbsp; IR 2982 (m), 1840 (s), 1767 (s), 1089 (m) cm</span><sup style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; line-height: 28px;">-1</sup><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px;">.</span></span> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <div style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; margin-bottom: 20px; padding: 0px;"> <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 255);"><b style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">Reaction Mechanism</b>&nbsp;The scheme below depicts the concerted mechanism of the Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene and maleic anhydride to form<i style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">cis</i>-Norbornene-5,6-<i style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">endo</i>-dicarboxylic anhydride.</span> </div> <br /> <br /> <br /> <figure style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(46, 50, 54); font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; margin: 0px;"> <img alt="diels-alder reaction" class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-2704" data-pinit="registered" height="161" src="http://www.odinity.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/diels-alder-reaction.png" style="padding: 8px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); -webkit-box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; border-bottom-left-radius: 3px; border-bottom-right-radius: 3px; border-top-left-radius: 3px; border-top-right-radius: 3px; box-sizing: border-box; clear: both; display: block; height: auto; max-width: 100%; text-align: center; width: auto; margin-left: auto !important; margin-right: auto !important; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;" width="373" /> </figure> <br /> <div style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; margin-bottom: 20px; padding: 0px;"> <b style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;"><span style="color: purple;">Results and Discussion&nbsp;</span></b> <br /> <span style="color: purple;">When combining the reagents, a cloudy mixture was produced and problems arose in the attempt to completely dissolve the mixture.&nbsp; After heating for about 10 minutes and magnetically stirring, tiny solids still remained. The undissolved solids were removed form the hot solution by filtration and once they cooled, white crystals began to form. Regarding the specific reaction between cyclopentadiene and maleic anhydride, the endo isomer, the kinetic product, was formed because the experiment was directed under mild conditions.&nbsp;&nbsp; The exo<i style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">&nbsp;</i>isomer is the thermodynamic product because it is more stable.<a href="file:///C:/Users/jpapst.UAD/Dropbox/Odinity/DielsAlderREWRITE.docx#_edn1" style="text-decoration: none; color: rgb(170, 0, 51); border-bottom-color: rgb(200, 203, 206); border-bottom-style: solid; border-bottom-width: 1px; box-sizing: border-box; font-size: 15px; font-weight: bold; line-height: inherit; padding-bottom: 4px;" title="">3</a></span> </div> <div style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; margin-bottom: 20px; padding: 0px;"> <span style="color: orange;">A total of 0.47 g of the product was collected; a yield of 27.6%. The melting point was in the range of 163-164 &deg;C which indicates the absence of impurities because the known melting point of the product is 164 &deg;C.</span> </div> <div style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(46, 50, 54); font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"> <img alt="Cis-Norbornene-5-6-endo-dicarboxylic anhydride" class="aligncenter size-full wp-image-2705" data-pinit="registered" height="252" src="http://www.odinity.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Cis-Norbornene-5-6-endo-dicarboxylic-anhydride.png" style="padding: 8px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); -webkit-box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; border-bottom-left-radius: 3px; border-bottom-right-radius: 3px; border-top-left-radius: 3px; border-top-right-radius: 3px; box-sizing: border-box; clear: both; display: block; height: auto; max-width: 100%; text-align: center; width: auto; margin-left: auto !important; margin-right: auto !important; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;" width="374" /> <br /> <br /> &nbsp; </div> <div style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; margin: 0px; padding: 0px;"> <div style="box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 20px; padding: 0px;"> <span style="color: red;">The&nbsp;<sup style="box-sizing: border-box;">1</sup>H NMR spectrum of the product revealed a peak in the alkene range at 6.30 ppm, H-2 and H-3 (Figure 1).&nbsp; In addition, it exhibited two peaks at 3.57 and 3.45 ppm because of the proximity of H-1, H-4, H-5, and H-6 to an electronegative atom, oxygen.&nbsp; Finally, two peaks at 1.78 and 1.59 ppm corresponded to the sp<sup style="box-sizing: border-box;">3</sup>&nbsp;hydrogens, Hb and Ha, respectively.&nbsp; Impurities that appeared included ethyl acetate at 4.03, 2.03, and 1.31 ppm as well as acetone at 2.16 ppm.</span> </div> <div style="box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 20px; padding: 0px;"> <span style="color: blue;">Regarding the&nbsp;<sup style="box-sizing: border-box;">13</sup>C NMR, a peak appeared at 171.3 ppm, accounting for the presence of two carbonyl functional groups, represented by C-7 and C-8 in Figure 1.&nbsp; The alkene carbons, C-2 and C-3, exhibited a peak at 135.5 ppm, while the sp<sup style="box-sizing: border-box;">3</sup>&nbsp;carbons close to oxygen, C-5 and C-6, displayed a peak at 52.7 ppm.&nbsp; Finally, peaks at 46.1 and 47.1 ppm accounted for the sp<sup style="box-sizing: border-box;">3</sup>&nbsp;carbons, C-1 and C-4, and C-9.&nbsp; Impurities of ethyl acetate appeared at 46.6, 25.8, and 21.0 ppm accompanied with acetone at 30.9 ppm.</span> </div> <div style="box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 20px; padding: 0px;"> <span style="color: orange;">The IR spectrum revealed a peak at 2982 cm<sup style="box-sizing: border-box;">-1</sup>&nbsp;representing the C-H stretches.&nbsp; A peak at 1840 cm<sup style="box-sizing: border-box;">-1</sup>&nbsp;accounted for the carbonyl functional group, while a peak at 1767 cm<sup style="box-sizing: border-box;">-1</sup>&nbsp;accounted for the alkene bond.&nbsp; A peak at 1089 cm<sup style="box-sizing: border-box;">-1</sup>&nbsp;represented the carbon-oxygen functional group.</span> </div> <div style="box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 20px; padding: 0px;"> <span style="color: rgb(255, 0, 255);">In order to distinguish between the two possible isomers, properties such as melting point and spectroscopy data were analyzed.&nbsp; The exo product possessed a melting point in the range of 140-145 &deg;C which is significantly lower than the endo product.&nbsp; The observed melting point in this experiment supported the production of the endo isomer.&nbsp;</span> <br /> <span style="color: purple;">The&nbsp;<sup style="box-sizing: border-box;">1</sup>H NMR spectum exhibited a doublet of doublets at 3.57 ppm for the endo<i style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">&nbsp;</i>isomer.&nbsp; The exo isomer would possess a triplet around 3.50 ppm due to the difference in dihedral angle between the hydrogen molecules of H-1 and H-4, and H-5 and H-6 (Figure 1).&nbsp; A peak at 3.00 ppm would appear in the exo isomer spectra as opposed to a peak at 3.60 ppm as shown in the observed endo product.<sup style="box-sizing: border-box;">3</sup>&nbsp;This is because of the interaction and coupling with the H-5 and H-6, as displayed in Figure 1.</span> </div> <div style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(46, 50, 54); margin-bottom: 20px; padding: 0px;"> &nbsp; </div> <div style="box-sizing: border-box; margin-bottom: 20px; padding: 0px;"> <span style="color: red;"><b style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">Conclusion&nbsp;</b></span> <br /> <span style="color: red;">Through the Diels-Alder reaction, 27.6% yield of&nbsp;<i style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">cis</i>-Norbornene-5,6-<i style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">endo</i>-dicarboxylic anhydride was produced. The distinction of the presence of the endo<i style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">&nbsp;</i>isomer was proven by analyzing physical properties of both possible isomers.</span> </div> </div> <div style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; margin-bottom: 20px; padding: 0px;"> <span style="color: blue;">Martin, J.; Hill, R.;&nbsp;<i style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">Chem Rev,&nbsp;</i><b style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">1961</b>,&nbsp;<i style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">61</i>, 537-562.</span> </div> <div style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; margin-bottom: 20px; padding: 0px;"> <span style="color: blue;">2 Pavia, L; Lampman, G; Kriz, G; Engel, R.&nbsp;<i style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">A Small Scale Approach to Organic Laboratory&nbsp;&nbsp; Techniques,&nbsp;</i><b style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">2011</b>, 400-409.</span> </div> <div style="box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 28px; margin-bottom: 20px; padding: 0px;"> <span style="color: blue;">3 Myers, K.; Rosark, J.&nbsp;<i style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">Diels-Alder Synthesis,&nbsp;</i><b style="box-sizing: border-box; line-height: inherit;">2004</b>, 259-265.</span> <br /> <span style="color: blue;">link&nbsp;</span> <br /> <a href="http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/08/cis-norborene-56-endo-dicarboxylic.html" style="text-decoration: none; color: rgb(170, 0, 51);">http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/08/cis-norborene-56-endo-dicarboxylic.html</a> <br /> <br /> <h2 class="title" style="margin: 0px 0px 0.5em; position: relative; font-weight: normal; font-size: 20px; line-height: normal; font-family: Arial, Tahoma, Helvetica, FreeSans, sans-serif; color: rgb(102, 0, 51); background-color: rgb(45, 48, 55);"> <span style="color: red;">ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL</span></h2> <div class="widget-content" style="background-color: rgb(45, 48, 55); font-family: Arial, Tahoma, Helvetica, FreeSans, sans-serif; font-size: 13px; line-height: normal;"> <span style="color: red;">Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on<a href="http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/" style="text-decoration: none; color: rgb(170, 0, 51);" target="_blank">ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL&nbsp;</a>&nbsp;<img alt="" src="http://homepage.ntlworld.com/bhandari/Imperial/Atenolol/earth.gif" style="padding: 8px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); -webkit-box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;" /></span> </div> <br /> <div dir="ltr" style="background-color: white; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22.265625px; margin: 0px; outline: 0px; padding: 0px;"> <div style="border: 0px; margin: 0px; outline: 0px; padding: 0px;"> <img alt="ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO" src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/-S7oatwKcKdU/AAAAAAAAAAI/AAAAAAAAAAA/efmYB4v2v3E/s96-c/photo.jpg" style="padding: 0px; -webkit-box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; border: none; margin: 0px; max-width: 100%; outline: 0px;" /> </div> <div style="border: 0px; margin-bottom: 1.5em; outline: 0px; padding: 0px;"> THANKS AND REGARD’S <br /> DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D </div> <div style="border: 0px; margin-bottom: 1.5em; outline: 0px; padding: 0px;"> <a href="mailto:amcrasto@gmail.com" style="text-decoration: none; color: rgb(34, 122, 209); border: 0px; margin: 0px; outline: 0px; padding: 0px;" target="_blank">amcrasto@gmail.com</a> </div> <div style="border: 0px; margin: 0px; outline: 0px; padding: 0px;"> MOBILE-+91 9323115463 </div> <div style="border: 0px; 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color: rgb(34, 122, 209); border: 0px; margin: 0px; outline: 0px; padding: 0px;" target="_blank" title="WORLD DRUG TRACKER FACEBOOK">WORLD DRUG TRACKER FACEBOOK</a> </div> </div> <div style="border: 0px; margin: 0px; outline: 0px; padding: 0px;"> <img alt="shark" src="https://ci5.googleusercontent.com/proxy/FOJq4UDJ2EHVwnMARQKy_yYUCH0xcPHgvchhPVrqAT3paG5FxW1HTd7GjIp1oMJiuqQoJy30B9QLxB9aM2YjhPI=s0-d-e1-ft#http://www.valdosta.edu/~adbrosem/shark.gif" style="padding: 0px; -webkit-box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; border: none; margin: 0px; max-width: 100%; outline: 0px;" /> </div> <div style="border: 0px; margin-bottom: 1.5em; outline: 0px; padding: 0px;"> &nbsp; </div> <div style="border: 0px; margin-bottom: 1.5em; outline: 0px; padding: 0px;"> <img alt="" src="http://cdn.content.sweetim.com/sim/cpie/emoticons/00020239.gif" style="padding: 0px; -webkit-box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; border: none; margin: 0px; max-width: 100%; outline: 0px;" /> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div style="background-color: white; border: 0px; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22.265625px; margin-bottom: 1.5em; outline: 0px; padding: 0px;"> <img alt="feder-0005.gif from 123gifs.eu" src="http://www.123gifs.eu/free-gifs/quills/feder-0005.gif" style="padding: 0px; -webkit-box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.498039) 1px 1px 5px; border: none; margin: 0px; max-width: 100%; outline: 0px;" />amcrasto@gmail.com </div> </div> </div> </div> Sun, 24 Aug 2014 08:35:17 GMT dfdda56f-aacb-4050-b8f6-166bd924ed8d Your Aunt can teach you Organic Opectroscopy http://amcrasto.wix.com/anthony-melvin-crasto/apps/blog/your-aunt-can-teach-you-organic-opectroscopy <h3 class="post-title entry-title" style="font-weight: normal; margin: 15px 0px 10px; padding: 0px; font-size: 20px; line-height: 1.273; clear: both; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif;"> <img src="http://www.kontrimiene.lt/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/mom_reading_animation.gif" /></h3> <h3 class="post-title entry-title" style="font-weight: normal; margin: 15px 0px 10px; padding: 0px; font-size: 20px; line-height: 1.273; clear: both; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif;"> Organic spectroscopy should be brushed up and you get confidence</h3> <h3 class="post-title entry-title" style="font-weight: normal; margin: 15px 0px 10px; padding: 0px; font-size: 20px; line-height: 1.273; clear: both; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif;"> read my blog</h3> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"> &nbsp;</p> <div class="titlewrapper" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"> <h1 class="title" style="font-weight: normal; margin: 0px 0px 30px; padding: 0px; clear: both; font-size: 40px; letter-spacing: -1px; line-height: 1.15;"> <a href="http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL</a>&nbsp; is the blog</h1> </div> <div class="descriptionwrapper" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"> <p class="description" style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Organic chemists from Industry and academics to interact on Spectroscopy techniques for Organic compounds ie NMR, MASS, IR, UV Etc. email me ……….. amcrasto@gmail.com</p> <p class="description" style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/</a>&nbsp; is the link</p> <p class="description" style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <img alt="feder-0005.gif from 123gifs.eu" src="http://www.123gifs.eu/free-gifs/quills/feder-0005.gif" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" />amcrasto@gmail.com</p> <p class="description" style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> </div> <h3 class="post-title entry-title" style="font-weight: normal; margin: 15px 0px 10px; padding: 0px; font-size: 20px; line-height: 1.273; clear: both; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif;"> <a href="http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/08/oleanolic-acid-spectral-data-and.html" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">Oleanolic acid spectral data and interpretation</a></h3> <div class="post-header" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"> &nbsp; <a href="http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/08/oleanolic-acid-spectral-data-and.html" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/08/oleanolic-acid-spectral-data-and.html</a></div> <div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-4897529195208286913" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"> <div dir="ltr"> <img alt="Chemical structure for Oleanolic Acid" data-pinit="registered" src="https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/image/imgsrv.fcgi?t=l&amp;cid=10494" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" /> <img alt="Oleanolic acid" data-pinit="registered" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cf/Oleanolic_acid.png/200px-Oleanolic_acid.png" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" /> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <b>Oleanolic acid</b><br /> (4a<i>S</i>,6a<i>R</i>,6a<i>S</i>,6b<i>R</i>,8a<i>R</i>,10<i>S</i>,12a<i>R</i>,14b<i>S</i>)-10-hydroxy-2,2,6a,6b,9,9,12a-heptamethyl-1,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a,10,11,12,13,14b-tetradecahydropicene-4a-carboxylic acid</p> <div class="smalltext"> Oleanic acid, Caryophyllin, Astrantiagenin C, Giganteumgenin C, Virgaureagenin B, 3beta-Hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, OLEANOLIC_ACID </div> <div class="smalltext"> Molecular Formula:&nbsp;C <span style="font-size: 11px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; bottom: -0.25em;">30</span>H <span style="font-size: 11px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; bottom: -0.25em;">48</span>O <span style="font-size: 11px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; bottom: -0.25em;">3</span> </div> <div class="smalltext"> Molecular Weight:&nbsp;456.70032 </div> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/08/oleanolic-acid-spectral-data-and.html" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/08/oleanolic-acid-spectral-data-and.html</a></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <img alt="" data-pinit="registered" src="http://www.ursolicacid.com/images/image1.gif" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" /></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <b>Ursolic acid [(3b)-3-Hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid] rarely occurs without its isomer oleanolic acid [(3b)-3-Hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid] They may occur in their free acid form, as shown in Figure 1, or as aglycones for triterpenoid saponins which are comprised of a triterpenoid aglycone linked to one or more sugar moieties. Ursolic and oleanolic acids are similar in pharmacological activity</b></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> MS<br /> EIMS m/z (rel. int.) 456 [M]+ (5), 412 (3), 248 (100), 203 (50), 167 (25), 44 (51)</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> IR KBR<br /> (KBr) 3500, 2950, 2850, 1715; 1H-NMR (250 MHz, pyridine-d5) δ: 5.49 (1H, s, H-12), 3.47 (1H, t, J = 8.0 Hz, H-3), 3.30 (1H, m, H-18), 1.12 (3H, s, CH3-27), 0.96 (3H, s, CH3-30), 0.91 (3H, s, CH3-25), 0.89 (3H, s, CH3-23), 0.87 (3H, s, CH3-24), 0.75 (3H, s, CH3-26)</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/08/oleanolic-acid-spectral-data-and.html" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/08/oleanolic-acid-spectral-data-and.html</a></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> 1H NMR</p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="border-bottom-style: solid; border-bottom-color: rgb(209, 209, 209); border-collapse: collapse; border-spacing: 0px; line-height: 1.6; margin: 0px 0px 24px; width: 500px; font-size: 12px; height: 471px;" width="746"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="padding: 5px 0px;"> &nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="padding: 5px 0px;"> (250 MHz, pyridine-d5)δ: 5.49 (1H, s, H-12), 3.47 (1H, t, J = 8.0 Hz, H-3), 3.30 (1H, m, H-18), 1.12 (3H, s, CH3-27), 0.96 (3H, s, CH3-30), 0.91 (3H, s, CH3-25), 0.89 (3H, s, CH3-23), 0.87 (3H, s, CH3-24), 0.75 (3H, s, CH3-26) <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="310" src="http://www.herbdb.co.kr/herb/dbmanage/Separation_UpLoadFiles/Oleanolic%20acid-1H%20NMR.jpg" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" width="400" /></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <img alt="" data-pinit="registered" src="http://www.herbdb.co.kr/herb/dbmanage/Compound_UpLoadFiles/Oleanolic%20acid2.jpg" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" /></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> 13 C NMR</p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="border-bottom-style: solid; border-bottom-color: rgb(209, 209, 209); border-collapse: collapse; border-spacing: 0px; line-height: 1.6; margin: 0px 0px 24px; width: 500px; font-size: 12px; height: 434px;" width="735"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="padding: 5px 0px;"> &nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="padding: 5px 0px;"> (63 MHz, pyridine-d5) δ: 180.2 (C-28), 144.8 (C-13), 122.5 (C-12), 78.0 (C-3), 55.7 (C-5), 48.0 (C-9), 46.6 (C-8, 17), 42.1 (C-14), 39.7 (C-4), 39.4 (C-1), 37.3 (C-10), 33.2 (C-7), 32.9 (C-29), 32.4 (C-21), 30.9 (C-20), 28.7 (C-23), 27.2 (C-2), 26.9 (C-15), 26.1 (C-30), 23.7 (C-11), 23.6 (C-16), 18.7 (C-6), 17.4 (C-26), 16.5 (C-24), 15.5 (C-25)<img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="311" src="http://www.herbdb.co.kr/herb/dbmanage/Separation_UpLoadFiles/Oleanolic%20acid-13C%20NMR.jpg" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" width="400" /></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/08/oleanolic-acid-spectral-data-and.html" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/08/oleanolic-acid-spectral-data-and.html</a><br /> <img alt="" data-pinit="registered" src="http://www.herbdb.co.kr/herb/dbmanage/Compound_UpLoadFiles/Oleanolic%20acid2.jpg" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" /></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://www.google.com/patents/US20120237629" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">http://www.google.com/patents/US20120237629</a></p> <div> FIG. 4&nbsp;shows the&nbsp; <span style="font-size: 11px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;">1</span>H NMR spectrum of oleanolic acid; </div> <div> FIG. 5&nbsp;shows the&nbsp; <span style="font-size: 11px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;">13</span>C NMR spectrum of oleanolic acid; </div> <div> FIG. 6&nbsp;shows the&nbsp; <span style="font-size: 11px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;">13</span>C DEPT NMR spectrum of oleanolic acid; </div> <div> FIG. 7&nbsp;shows the&nbsp; <span style="font-size: 11px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;">1</span>H&nbsp; <span style="font-size: 11px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;">13</span>C HSQC NMR spectrum of oleanolic acid; </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> see below </div> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="400" src="http://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/US20120237629A1/US20120237629A1-20120920-D00002.png" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" width="321" /></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/08/oleanolic-acid-spectral-data-and.html" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/08/oleanolic-acid-spectral-data-and.html</a><br /> <img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="640" src="http://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/US20120237629A1/US20120237629A1-20120920-D00003.png" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" width="480" /><br /> <img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="640" src="http://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/US20120237629A1/US20120237629A1-20120920-D00004.png" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" width="534" /></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="640" src="http://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/US20120237629A1/US20120237629A1-20120920-D00005.png" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" width="520" /></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> EXAMPLE 2&nbsp;Extraction and Isolation of Oleanolic Acid (9) and Maslinic Acid (10) from Cloves</p> <div> <i>Syzygium aromaticum&nbsp;</i>dried buds or whole cloves were obtained commercially. The cloves (1.5 kg, whole) of&nbsp; <i>Syzygium aromaticum&nbsp;</i>were sequentially and exhaustively extracted with hexane and ethyl acetate to give, after solvent removal in vacuo, a hexane extract (68.8 g, 4.9%) and an ethyl acetate extract (34.1 g, 2.3%). A portion of the ethyl acetate extract (10.0 g), was subjected to chromatographic separation on silica gel (60-120 mesh) column (40&times;5.0 cm). Elution with hexane/ethyl acetate solvent mixtures (8:2→6:4) afforded pure oleanolic acid (9) (4.7 g, 1.06%), a mixture of oleanolic acid (9) and maslinic acid (10) (0.5 g), and pure maslinic acid (10) (0.25 g). The structures of oleanolic acid (9) and maslinic acid (10) (as 2,3-diacetoxyoleanolic acid) were confirmed by spectroscopic data analysis (1D and 2D&nbsp; <span style="font-size: 11px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;">1</span>H NMR and&nbsp; <span style="font-size: 11px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;">13</span>C NMR experiments) (FIGS. 4-7&nbsp;and&nbsp;FIGS. 8-10, respectively). </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> <a href="http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/08/oleanolic-acid-spectral-data-and.html" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/08/oleanolic-acid-spectral-data-and.html</a> </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> <div dir="ltr"> <div> <img alt="ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO" src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/-S7oatwKcKdU/AAAAAAAAAAI/AAAAAAAAAAA/efmYB4v2v3E/s96-c/photo.jpg" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); 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text-decoration: none;" target="_blank">http://amcrasto.blog.fc2.com/</a> </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> <a href="http://blog.sina.com.cn/u/5030268874" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank">http://blog.sina.com.cn/u/5030268874</a> </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> <a href="http://ameblo.jp/medchem-amcrasto/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank">http://ameblo.jp/medchem-amcrasto/</a> </div> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://me.zing.vn/u/amcrasto" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank">http://me.zing.vn/u/amcrasto</a></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> ICELAND,&nbsp;RUSSIA, ARAB</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://bobrdobr.ru/people/amcrasto/" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank" title="BOBRDOBR">BOBRDOBR</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://amcrasto.bland.is/" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank" title="BLAND ICELAND">BLAND ICELAND</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.100zakladok.ru/amcrasto/" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank" title="100zakladok">100zakladok</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.adfty.net/user.php" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank" title="adfty">adfty</a></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> GROUPS</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> you can post articles and will be administered by me on the google group which is very popular across the world</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://groupspaces.com/ORGANICPROCESSDEVELOPMENT2" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">OPD GROUPSPACES</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.scoop.it/t/organic-chemistry-international" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank" title="SCOOP OCI">SCOOP OCI</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://groups.google.com/group/organic-process-development?hl=en-GB" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank">organic-process-development</a>&nbsp;GOOGLE,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.tvinx.com/all_for_drugs.social-network.2364.en" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); 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text-decoration: none;">WDT LINKEDIN</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://group.me.zing.vn/zmg/detail?gid=451938" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">WDTI ZING</a></p> <div> <a href="https://www.facebook.com/groups/634229223271818/" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank" title="WORLD DRUG TRACKER FACEBOOK">WORLD DRUG TRACKER FACEBOOK</a> </div> </div> <div> <img alt="shark" src="https://ci5.googleusercontent.com/proxy/FOJq4UDJ2EHVwnMARQKy_yYUCH0xcPHgvchhPVrqAT3paG5FxW1HTd7GjIp1oMJiuqQoJy30B9QLxB9aM2YjhPI=s0-d-e1-ft#http://www.valdosta.edu/~adbrosem/shark.gif" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" /> </div> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <img alt="" src="http://cdn.content.sweetim.com/sim/cpie/emoticons/00020239.gif" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" /></p> </div> </div> </div> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> </div> </div> <div class="sharedaddy sd-rating-enabled sd-like-enabled sd-sharing-enabled" id="jp-post-flair" style="clear: both; padding-top: 0.5em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"> <div class="sharedaddy sd-sharing-enabled" style="clear: both;"> <div class="robots-nocontent sd-block sd-social sd-social-icon-text sd-sharing"> <h3 class="sd-title" style="margin: 0px 0px 1em; padding: 0px; font-size: 9pt; line-height: 1.2; clear: both; display: inline-block;"> Share this:</h3> </div> </div> </div> Fri, 01 Aug 2014 23:57:03 GMT 5636cbc0-b368-4e81-a79f-a8e71754f8bf Anthony crasto’s blog New drug approvals touches 3 lakh views…….Helping millions http://amcrasto.wix.com/anthony-melvin-crasto/apps/blog/anthony-crastos-blog-new-drug-approvals-touches <div> &nbsp;</div> <div> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"> <del> <img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="320" id="irc_mi" src="http://www.epernicus.com/user_photos/8710/zoomed/f764f02c0cac783a583f51be0534c300.jpg?1332644650?1351923000" style="cursor: move; border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box; margin-top: 37px;" width="480" /> </del></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: 'Times New Roman'; font-size: medium;"> <font color="#333333" face="Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif"><span style="font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;">Anthony crasto’s blog New drug approvals touches 3 lakh views…….Helping millions</span></font></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"> link is&nbsp;<a href="http://newdrugapprovals.org/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">http://newdrugapprovals.org/</a></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"> All about Drugs, live, by DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Worlddrugtracker, Helping millions, 7 million hits on google, pushing boundaries, one lakh plus connections worldwide, 3 lakh plus VIEWS on this blog in 193 countries<img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="170" id="irc_mi" src="http://newdrugapprovals.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/cropped-new-drug-approvals-acclerys.jpg?w=832&amp;h=170" style="cursor: move; border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box; margin-top: 112px;" width="832" /></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"> &nbsp;</p> <div dir="ltr" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"> <div> <img alt="ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO" src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/-S7oatwKcKdU/AAAAAAAAAAI/AAAAAAAAAAA/efmYB4v2v3E/s96-c/photo.jpg" style="cursor: move; border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" /> </div> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> THANKS AND REGARD’S<br /> DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="mailto:amcrasto@gmail.com" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank">amcrasto@gmail.com</a></p> <div> MOBILE-+91 9323115463 </div> <div> GLENMARK SCIENTIST , &nbsp;INDIA <br /> web link </div> <div> <a href="http://about.me/amcrasto" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank">ABOUTME</a>,&nbsp; <a href="http://anthonymelvincrasto.brandyourself.com/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank">BRAND ANTHONYCRASTO</a>,&nbsp; <a href="https://sites.google.com/site/anthonycrastoorganicchemistry/sites---my-own-on-the-net" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank">COLLECTION OF SITE LINKS</a>, <a href="http://amcrasto.bravesites.com/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">BRAVESITES</a>,&nbsp; <a href="http://en.gravatar.com/amcrasto" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank" title="GRAVATAR">GRAVATAR</a>,&nbsp; <a href="http://anthonycrasto.jimdo.com/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); 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Your presentation titled “</a></span> <a href="http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/anthonycrasto1964-1247437-anthony-crasto-glenmark-scientist-helping-millions-with-websites/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none; line-height: 1.5em;" target="_blank">Anthony Cra sto Glenmark scientist, helping millions with websites</a> <span style="line-height: 1.5em;">” has just crossed&nbsp;</span> <b style="line-height: 1.5em;">MILLION</b> <span style="line-height: 1.5em;">&nbsp;views.</span> </div> <div> <div> アンソニー&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; 安东尼&nbsp;&nbsp; Энтони&nbsp; &nbsp; 안토니&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; أنتوني </div> <div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> <b>blogs are</b> <br /> <b>&nbsp;</b> <img alt="" src="https://ci3.googleusercontent.com/proxy/ITDphaekzZcQmPjlSzQ5zZohlLxwu1k8w4boHErYCv0tsDa94kbuAlwFTeWpeVoTgDeH-Gh7COL6-FdrdKVICS1Wp3Sb_iSa98osTkeNmcIWJuc=s0-d-e1-ft#http://www.labcompliance.com/pictures/misc_pic/news-flash.gif" style="cursor: move; border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" /> </div> <div> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <b style="line-height: 1.5em;"><a href="http://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank">New Drug Approvals</a>,&nbsp;</b><a href="http://www.allfordrugs.com/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none; line-height: 1.5em;" target="_blank">ALL ABOUT DRUGS</a><span style="line-height: 1.5em;">,&nbsp;</span><a href="http://worlddrugtracker.blogspot.in/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none; line-height: 1.5em;" target="_blank">WORLD DRUG TRACKER</a></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://medcheminternational.blogspot.in/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank">MEDICINAL CHEM INTERNATIONA</a>L,&nbsp;<a href="http://drugsynthesisint.blogspot.in/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" target="_blank">DRUG SYN INTERNATIONAL</a></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://drug-scaleup-and-manufacturing.webnode.com/blog/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); 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padding: 0px; font-size: 9pt; line-height: 1.2; clear: both; display: inline-block;"> Share this:</h3> </div> </div> </div> </div> Wed, 16 Jul 2014 05:58:01 GMT 9ce976e0-46fc-4b47-a725-b130f42170b1 ARAB MEDICINE- Alyeadah (Teucrium Stocisianum Bois) http://amcrasto.wix.com/anthony-melvin-crasto/apps/blog/arab-medicine-alyeadah-teucrium-stocisianum-bois <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif;"> &nbsp;</h2> <div class="entry-summary" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; line-height: 19px;"> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a class="image" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Teucrium_fruticans_detail.JPG" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;"><img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="147" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/19/Teucrium_fruticans_detail.JPG/220px-Teucrium_fruticans_detail.JPG" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" width="220" /></a>&nbsp;Tree Germander (<i><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teucrium_fruticans" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Teucrium fruticans">Teucrium fruticans</a></i>)</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> This plant is used in folk medicine for treating diarrhea, cough, jaundice and abdominal pain</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Medicinal plants are used for the treatment of different diseases in almost all cultures. Teucrium species grow wildly at different geographical locations around the world.&nbsp;<em>Teucrium stocksianum</em>&nbsp;is used in folk medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, cough, jaundice and abdominal pain. Scientific study on&nbsp;<em>Teucrium stocksianum</em>&nbsp;shows that it possesses anthelmintic, cytotoxic and antispasmodic activity. The aim of our present study is to identify the chemical composition and antinociceptive potential of the essential oil extracted from&nbsp;<em>Teucrium stocksianum</em>&nbsp;bioss.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <i><b>Teucrium</b></i>&nbsp;is a genus of perennial plants in the family Lamiaceae. The name is believed to refer to King Teucer of Troy.<span class="reference" id="cite_ref-Grieve_3-0" style="font-size: 9px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;">&nbsp;</span>Members of the genus are commonly known as&nbsp;<b>germanders</b>. These species are herbs, shrubs or subshrubs. They are most common in Mediterranean climates.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> An unusual feature of this genus compared with other members of Lamiaceae is that the flowers completely lack the upper lip of the<span class="mw-redirect">corolla</span>, although it is somewhat reduced also in other genera (<i>Ajuga</i>&nbsp;among them).</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Several species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the&nbsp;<i>Coleophora</i>&nbsp;case-bearers<i>Coleophora auricella</i>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<i>Coleophora chamaedriella</i>. The latter is only known from Wall Germander (<i>T. chamaedrys</i>).</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <i>Teucrium</i>&nbsp;species are rich in essential oils. They are valued as ornamental plants and a pollen source, and some species have culinary and/or medical value.</p> </div> Tue, 21 Jan 2014 06:27:32 GMT 0f48e9c0-dc48-4e64-a50f-174d0f7e5a8e ARAB MEDICINE- KHAT http://amcrasto.wix.com/anthony-melvin-crasto/apps/blog/arab-medicine-khat <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif;"> <a href="http://newdrugapprovals.org/2013/05/23/arab-medicine-khat/" rel="bookmark" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Permanent Link to ARAB MEDICINE-&nbsp;KHAT">ARAB MEDICINE-&nbsp;KHAT</a></h2> <div class="entry-summary" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; line-height: 19px;"> <table style="border-bottom-style: solid; border-bottom-color: rgb(209, 209, 209); border-collapse: collapse; border-spacing: 0px; line-height: 1.6; margin: 0px 0px 24px; width: 730px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2" style="padding: 5px 0px;"> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Catha_edulis.jpg" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;"><img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="165" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/56/Catha_edulis.jpg/220px-Catha_edulis.jpg" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" width="220" /></a></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" style="padding: 5px 0px;"> <i>Catha edulis</i></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <b>Khat</b>&nbsp;(<i>Catha edulis</i>) is a&nbsp;flowering plant&nbsp;native to the&nbsp;Horn of Africa&nbsp;and the&nbsp;Arabian Peninsula. Among communities from these areas, khat chewing has a long history as a social custom dating back thousands of years.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Khat contains a&nbsp;monoamine&nbsp;alkaloid&nbsp;called&nbsp;cathinone, an&nbsp;amphetamine-like&nbsp;stimulant, which is said to cause excitement,&nbsp;loss of appetite&nbsp;and&nbsp;euphoria. In 1980, the&nbsp;World Health Organization&nbsp;(WHO) classified it as a&nbsp;drug of abuse&nbsp;that can produce mild to moderatepsychological dependence&nbsp;(less than tobacco or alcohol),&nbsp;although the WHO does not consider khat to be seriously addictive.&nbsp;The plant has been targeted by anti-drug organizations such as the&nbsp;DEA.It is a&nbsp;controlled substance&nbsp;in some countries, such as the&nbsp;United States,&nbsp;Canada&nbsp;and&nbsp;Germany, while its production, sale and consumption are legal in other nations, including&nbsp;Djibouti,&nbsp;Ethiopia,&nbsp;Somalia&nbsp;and&nbsp;Yemen.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Qat_man.jpg" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;"><img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="147" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Qat_man.jpg/220px-Qat_man.jpg" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" width="220" /></a></p> <div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Man chewing khat in&nbsp;Sana’a,&nbsp;Yemen, January 2009</p> </div> <div> Khat is a slow-growing&nbsp;shrub&nbsp;or&nbsp;tree&nbsp;that grows to between 1.4&nbsp;m and 3.1&nbsp;m tall, depending on region and rainfall. It has&nbsp;evergreenleaves&nbsp;5–10&nbsp;cm long and 1–4&nbsp;cm broad. The&nbsp;flowers&nbsp;are produced on short axillary&nbsp;cymes&nbsp;4–8&nbsp;cm long. Each flower is small, with five white petals. The&nbsp;fruit&nbsp;is an oblong three-valved capsule containing 1–3&nbsp;seeds. The seeds are&nbsp;samaras </div> <div> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Allegedly according to some sources, but disputed by others, khat’s exact place of origin is uncertain.One argument is that it was first grown in&nbsp;Ethiopia,with the explorer&nbsp;Sir Richard Burton&nbsp;suggesting that the plant was later introduced to&nbsp;Yemen&nbsp;from Ethiopia in the 15th century.&nbsp;He specifically mentions the eastern city of&nbsp;Harar&nbsp;as the birthplace of the plant.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> However, amongst communities in the&nbsp;Horn of Africa&nbsp;(Djibouti,&nbsp;Eritrea, Ethiopia,&nbsp;Somalia) and the&nbsp;Arabian Peninsula, khat chewing has a long history as a social custom dating back thousands of years.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The&nbsp;Ancient Egyptians&nbsp;considered the khat plant a divine food, which was capable of releasing humanity’s&nbsp;divinity. The Egyptians used the plant for more than its stimulating effects; they used it for transcending into “apotheosis”, with the intent of making the user god-like.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The earliest known documented description of khat is found in the&nbsp;<i>Kitab al-Saidala fi al-Tibb</i>&nbsp;كتاب الصيدلة في الطب, an 11th century work onpharmacy&nbsp;and&nbsp;materia medica&nbsp;written by&nbsp;Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, a&nbsp;Persian scientist&nbsp;and&nbsp;biologist. Unaware of its origins, al-Bīrūnī wrote that khat is:</p> <blockquote style="border-left-style: dotted; border-left-width: 2px; border-left-color: rgb(170, 170, 170); font-style: italic; margin: 14px 20px; padding-left: 20px;"> a commodity from&nbsp;Turkestan. It is sour to taste and slenderly made in the manner of&nbsp; <i>batan-alu</i>. But&nbsp; <i>khat</i>&nbsp;is reddish with a slight blackish tinge. It is believed that&nbsp; <i>batan-alu</i>&nbsp;is red, coolant, relieves biliousness, and is a refrigerant for the stomach and the liver. </blockquote> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> In 1854,&nbsp;Malay&nbsp;writer&nbsp;Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir&nbsp;noted that the custom of chewing khat was prevalent in&nbsp;Al Hudaydah&nbsp;in Yemen</p> <blockquote style="border-left-style: dotted; border-left-width: 2px; border-left-color: rgb(170, 170, 170); font-style: italic; margin: 14px 20px; padding-left: 20px;"> <div> You observed a new peculiarity in this city&nbsp;– everyone chewed leaves as goats chew the&nbsp;cud. There is a type of leaf, rather wide and about two fingers in length, which is widely sold, as people would consume these leaves just as they are; unlike&nbsp;betel&nbsp;leaves, which need certain condiments to go with them, these leaves were just stuffed fully into the mouth and munched. Thus when people gathered around, the remnants from these leaves would pile up in front of them. When they spat, their&nbsp;saliva&nbsp;was green. I then queried them on this matter: ‘What benefits are there to be gained from eating these leaves?’ To which they replied, ‘None whatsoever, it’s just another expense for us as we’ve grown accustomed to it’. Those who consume these leaves have to eat lots of&nbsp;ghee&nbsp;and&nbsp;honey, for they would fall ill otherwise. The leaves are known as&nbsp; <i>Kad</i>.” </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <b>khat contains Cathinone&nbsp;</b>,</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <img alt="" data-pinit="registered" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/S-Cathinone.svg/175px-S-Cathinone.svg.png" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" /></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> or&nbsp;<b>benzoylethanamine</b>&nbsp;(marketed as&nbsp;<b>hagigat</b>&nbsp;in Israel), is amonoamine&nbsp;alkaloid&nbsp;found in the&nbsp;shrub&nbsp;<i>Catha edulis</i>&nbsp;(khat) and is chemically similar toephedrine,&nbsp;cathine&nbsp;and other&nbsp;amphetamines. Cathinone induces the release of&nbsp;dopaminefrom striatal preparations that are prelabelled either with dopamine or its precursors.&nbsp;It is probably the main contributor to the&nbsp;stimulant&nbsp;effect of&nbsp;<i>Catha edulis</i>. Cathinone differs from many other amphetamines in that it has a&nbsp;ketone&nbsp;functional group. Other amphetamines that share this structure include the&nbsp;antidepressant&nbsp;bupropion&nbsp;and the stimulantmethcathinone, among others.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Internationally, cathinone is a&nbsp;Schedule I&nbsp;drug under the&nbsp;Convention on Psychotropic Substances.&nbsp;Circa 1993, the&nbsp;DEA&nbsp;added cathinone to the&nbsp;Controlled Substances Act’s Schedule I.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The sale of khat is legal in some jurisdictions, but illegal in others — see&nbsp;Khat (Regulation). Synthetic cathinone is also often used as the key ingredient of recreational drug mixes commonly known as ‘bath salts’ in the United States.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Cathinone is structurally related tomethcathinone, in much the same way asamphetamine&nbsp;is related to&nbsp;methamphetamine. Cathinone differs from amphetamine by possessing a&nbsp;ketone&nbsp;oxygen&nbsp;atom (C=O) on the&nbsp;<i>β</i>&nbsp;(beta) position of the side chain. The corresponding alcohol compound&nbsp;cathine&nbsp;is a less powerful stimulant. The biophysiological conversion from cathinone to&nbsp;cathine&nbsp;is to blame for the depotentiation of&nbsp;khat&nbsp;leaves over time. Fresh leaves have a greater ratio of cathinone to cathine than dried ones, therefore having more psychoactive effects.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Cathinone can be extracted from&nbsp;<i>Catha edulis</i>, or synthesized from&nbsp;<i>α</i>-bromopropiophenone(which is easily made from&nbsp;propiophenone).</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> </div> </blockquote> </div> </div> Tue, 21 Jan 2014 06:25:19 GMT 604e995f-30de-48eb-b5b0-57c1ee154097 Pfizer, GSK form productivity pact with Singapore’s A*Star http://amcrasto.wix.com/anthony-melvin-crasto/apps/blog/pfizer-gsk-form-productivity-pact-with-singapores-1 <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif;"> &nbsp;</h2> <div class="entry-summary" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; line-height: 19px;"> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="105" id="irc_mi" src="http://www.easteconomist.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/a-star-singapore.jpg" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box; margin-top: 1px;" width="267" /></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline and engineering giant Siemens have signed on as founding members of a new consortium set up by Singapore’s Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*Star) to address challenges such as costs, regulatory compliance and processes to bring drugs from trials to markets.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> READ ALL AT</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/13-06-21/Pfizer_GSK_form_productivity_pact_with_Singapore_s_A_Star.aspx" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/13-06-21/Pfizer_GSK_form_productivity_pact_with_Singapore_s_A_Star.aspx</a><img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="212" id="irc_mi" src="http://www.research.a-star.edu.sg/common/img/about-biopolis.jpg" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box; margin-top: 91px;" width="300" /></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The&nbsp;<b>Agency for Science, Technology and Research</b>&nbsp;(<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbreviation" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Abbreviation">Abbreviation</a>:&nbsp;<b>A*STAR</b>;&nbsp;<a class="mw-redirect" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simplified_Chinese" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Simplified Chinese">Chinese</a>: 新加坡科技研究局) is a&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statutory_boards_of_the_Singapore_Government" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Statutory boards of the Singapore Government">statutory board</a>&nbsp;under the&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministry_of_Trade_and_Industry_%28Singapore%29" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Ministry of Trade and Industry (Singapore)">Ministry of Trade and Industry</a>&nbsp;of&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singapore" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Singapore">Singapore</a>. The Agency was established in 1991 to foster scientific research and talent for a knowledge-based Singapore.</p> <table class="toc" id="toc" style="border-bottom-style: solid; border-bottom-color: rgb(209, 209, 209); border-collapse: collapse; border-spacing: 0px; line-height: 1.6; margin: 0px 0px 24px; width: 730px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="padding: 5px 0px;"> &nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Established in 1991 as the former National Science and Technology Board (NSTB), A*STAR was established with the primary mission to raise the level of science and technology in Singapore.<span class="reference" id="cite_ref-history_1-1" style="font-size: 9px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;"><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agency_for_Science,_Technology_and_Research#cite_note-history-1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">[1]</a></span></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5;"> <span class="mw-headline" id="Leadership">Leadership</span></h2> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The current chairman of A*STAR is Mr.&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lim_Chuan_Poh" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Lim Chuan Poh">Lim Chuan Poh</a>. He was formerly the Permanent Secretary (Education) and the&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chief_of_Defence" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Chief of Defence">Chief of Defence Force</a>. Mr Lim took over the reins of A*STAR from Mr.&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Yeo" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Philip Yeo">Philip Yeo</a>, who later became Chairman of SPRING Singapore, on 1 April 2007.<span class="reference" id="cite_ref-Chang_2-0" style="font-size: 9px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;"><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agency_for_Science,_Technology_and_Research#cite_note-Chang-2" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">[2]</a></span></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The scientific leadership includes Tan Chorh Chuan,&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Radda" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="George Radda">George Radda</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney_Brenner" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Sydney Brenner">Sydney Brenner</a>,&nbsp;<a class="mw-redirect" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_P._Lane" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="David P. Lane">David Lane</a>, Charles Zukoski and used to include Prof Low Teck Seng. Prof Low Teck Seng left A*Star on 19 July 2012 to join the National Research Foundation of the Prime Minister’s Office.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5;"> <span class="mw-headline" id="A.2ASTAR_Entities">A*STAR Entities</span></h2> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The agency is made up of:</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <ul style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <b>The Biomedical Research Council (BMRC)</b>&nbsp;– Oversees public sector research activities in the biomedical sciences</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <b>The Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC)</b>&nbsp;– Oversees public sector research activities in the physical sciences &amp; engineering</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <b>The A*STAR Joint Council (A*JC)</b>&nbsp;– Promotes and supports interdisciplinary collaborations between biomedical sciences, and physical sciences &amp; engineering</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <b>The A*STAR Graduate Academy (A*GA)</b>&nbsp;– Administers science scholarships and other manpower development programs</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <b>Exploit Technologies Pte Ltd (ETPL)</b>&nbsp;– Manages the intellectual property created by research institutes in Singapore, and facilitates&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology_transfer" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Technology transfer">technology transfer</a>&nbsp;to industry</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <b>The Corporate Group</b>&nbsp;– Supports the rest of the organisation with finance, human resources, legal and other services</li> </ul> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The agency oversees 14 biomedical sciences, and physical sciences and engineering research institutes, and six consortia &amp; centre, which are located in&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biopolis" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Biopolis">Biopolis</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusionopolis" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Fusionopolis">Fusionopolis</a>, as well as their immediate vicinity.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> A*STAR supports Singapore’s key economic clusters by providing intellectual, human and industrial capital to its partners in industry. It also supports extramural research in the universities, hospitals, research centres, and with other local and international partners.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5;"> <span class="mw-headline" id="Research_Institutes_.26_Units">Research Institutes &amp; Units</span></h2> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <b>Biomedical Research Council</b></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The Biomedical Research Council (BMRC) oversees 7 research institutes and several other research units that focus on both basic as well as translational and clinical research to support the key industry clusters in&nbsp;<a class="mw-redirect" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomedical_Sciences" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Biomedical Sciences">Biomedical Sciences</a>,&nbsp;<a class="mw-redirect" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmaceuticals" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Pharmaceuticals">pharmaceuticals</a>, medical technology, biotechnology and healthcare services.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Having established a strong foundation in basic biomedical research capabilities, there is now an added focus on translating new knowledge and technologies created at the “benches” into new clinical applications for diagnosis and treatment that can one day be delivered at the “bedsides” of our hospitals and disease centres.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The research institutes and units under BMRC are:</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <ul style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bioinformatics_Institute&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Bioinformatics Institute (page does not exist)">Bioinformatics Institute</a>&nbsp;(BII)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bioprocessing_Technology_Institute&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Bioprocessing Technology Institute (page does not exist)">Bioprocessing Technology Institute</a>&nbsp;(BTI)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Experimental_Therapeutics_Centre&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Experimental Therapeutics Centre (page does not exist)">Experimental Therapeutics Centre</a>&nbsp;(ETC)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Singapore_Genome_Institute_of_Singapore&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Singapore Genome Institute of Singapore (page does not exist)">Genome Institute of Singapore</a>&nbsp;(GIS)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Institute_of_Bioengineering_and_Nanotechnology&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (page does not exist)">Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology</a>&nbsp;(IBN)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="external text" href="http://www.imb.a-star.edu.sg/php/main.php" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">Institute of Medical Biology</a>&nbsp;(IMB)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institute_of_Molecular_and_Cell_Biology_%28Singapore%29" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (Singapore)">Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology</a>&nbsp;(IMCB)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="external text" href="http://www.nrp.a-star.edu.sg/" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">Neuroscience Research Partnership</a>&nbsp;(NRP)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Singapore_Bioimaging_Consortium&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Singapore Bioimaging Consortium (page does not exist)">Singapore Bioimaging Consortium</a>&nbsp;(SBIC)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singapore_Immunology_Network" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Singapore Immunology Network">Singapore Immunology Network</a>&nbsp;(SIgN)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Singapore_Institute_for_Clinical_Sciences&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences (page does not exist)">Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences</a>&nbsp;(SICS)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Singapore_Stem_Cell_Consortium&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Singapore Stem Cell Consortium (page does not exist)">Singapore Stem Cell Consortium</a>&nbsp;(SSCC)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=A*STAR-NUS_Clinical_Imaging_Research_Centre&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="A*STAR-NUS Clinical Imaging Research Centre (page does not exist)">A*STAR-NUS Clinical Imaging Research Centre</a>&nbsp;(CIRC)</li> </ul> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The BMRC Research Institutes focus on building up core biomedical capabilities in the areas of bioprocessing; chemical synthesis; genomics and proteomics; molecular and cell biology; bioengineering and nanotechnology and computational biology. In addition, the Institute of Medical Biology (IMB) and Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences (SICS) focus on translational and clinical research.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <b>Science and Engineering Council</b></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> A*STAR’s Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) promotes public sector research and development in the physical sciences &amp; engineering.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> SERC manages seven research institutes and several state-of-the art centres and facilities with core competencies in a wide range of fields including communications, data storage, materials, chemicals, computational sciences, microelectronics, advanced manufacturing and metrology to tackle global technological challenges and create future industries from its headquarters at Fusionopolis, Singapore’s iconic hub for science and technology research.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The research institutes and units under SERC are:</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <ul style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_Storage_Institute" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Data Storage Institute">Data Storage Institute</a>&nbsp;(DSI)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Institute_of_Chemical_Engineering_and_Sciences&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Institute of Chemical Engineering and Sciences (page does not exist)">Institute of Chemical Engineering and Sciences</a>&nbsp;(ICES)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Institute_of_High_Performance_Computing&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Institute of High Performance Computing (page does not exist)">Institute of High Performance Computing</a>&nbsp;(IHPC)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Institute_of_Infocomm_Research&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Institute of Infocomm Research (page does not exist)">Institute of Infocomm Research</a>&nbsp;(I<span style="font-size: 9px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;">2</span>R)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Institute_of_Materials_Research_and_Engineering&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (page does not exist)">Institute of Materials Research and Engineering</a>&nbsp;(IMRE)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Institute_of_Microelectronics&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Institute of Microelectronics (page does not exist)">Institute of Microelectronics</a>&nbsp;(IME)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Singapore_Institute_of_Manufacturing_Technology&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (page does not exist)">Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology</a>&nbsp;(SIMTech)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="mw-redirect" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Metrology_Centre" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="National Metrology Centre">National Metrology Centre</a>&nbsp;(NMC)</li> </ul> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The seamless integration of the research institutes is key to addressing industry needs, which may span multiple disciplines. To this end, SERC’s broad range of capabilities are in a unique position to develop new technologies in areas such as automotives, aerospace, energy, electronic healthcare and medical technology, nanotechnology, photonics, sensors and sensor networks.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> In July 2012, it was announced that A*STAR collaborates with Chinese language internet search provider&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baidu" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Baidu">Baidu</a>&nbsp;to open a joint laboratory, called the Baidu-I2R Research Centre (BIRC), which aims to develop language processing technologies.<span class="reference" id="cite_ref-3" style="font-size: 9px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;"><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agency_for_Science,_Technology_and_Research#cite_note-3" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">[3]</a></span></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5;"> <span class="mw-headline" id="Scholarships">Scholarships</span></h2> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Each year, the Agency gives out a number of scholarships and awards to young and aspiring scientists. These awards are meant to help Singapore achieve its goal of becoming a research hub by nurturing home-grown PhDs to serve both in the public sector and in industry. In 2008, a total of 101 scholarships were awarded to Bachelor of Science and PhD students who were to embark on their studies in overseas universities.<span class="reference" id="cite_ref-4" style="font-size: 9px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;"><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agency_for_Science,_Technology_and_Research#cite_note-4" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">[4]</a></span>&nbsp;The administration of these awards are governed by the A*Star Graduate Academy, some of which are listed below:</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <ul style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> National Science Scholarship (BS)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> National Science Scholarship (PhD)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> A*Star Graduate Scholarship</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> Singapore International Graduate Award (SINGA)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> Singapore International Pre-Graduate Award (SIPGA)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> A*Star Pre-Graduate Award</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> A*Star International Fellowship</li> </ul> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5;"> <span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2> <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5;"> <span class="url"><a class="external text" href="http://www.a-star.edu.sg/" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">www.a-star.edu.sg</a></span></h2> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <div class="reflist references-column-width" style="-webkit-column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;"> <ol class="references" style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li id="cite_note-history-1" style="list-style-type: decimal;"> &nbsp;<span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://app.mti.gov.sg/default.asp?id=94" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">“Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)”</a>.&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministry_of_Trade_and_Industry_%28Singapore%29" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Ministry of Trade and Industry (Singapore)">Ministry of Trade and Industry</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 30 March 2011</span>.</span></li> <li id="cite_note-Chang-2" style="list-style-type: decimal;"> <span class="reference-text">Chang Ai-Lien, “S’pore’s science salesman turns sights on SMEs”,&nbsp;<i><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Straits_Times" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="The Straits Times">The Straits Times</a></i>, 21 October 2006</span></li> <li id="cite_note-3" style="list-style-type: decimal;"> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/1215799/1/.html" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">“Baidu, A*STAR open joint laboratory”</a>. Channel News Asia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 26 July 2012</span>.</span></li> <li id="cite_note-4" style="list-style-type: decimal;"> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.a-star.edu.sg/a_star/189-Press-Release?iid=542" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">More Than 300 Young People Receive A*STAR Scholarships And Awards At A*STAR Scholarship Award Ceremony 2008, 25 July 08</a></span></li> </ol> </div> </div> Sun, 19 Jan 2014 02:38:45 GMT b8d0f775-68c9-483f-b3d6-4fd051783c7a Pfizer, GSK form productivity pact with Singapore’s A*Star http://amcrasto.wix.com/anthony-melvin-crasto/apps/blog/pfizer-gsk-form-productivity-pact-with-singapores <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif;"> &nbsp;</h2> <div class="entry-summary" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; line-height: 19px;"> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="105" id="irc_mi" src="http://www.easteconomist.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/a-star-singapore.jpg" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box; margin-top: 1px;" width="267" /></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline and engineering giant Siemens have signed on as founding members of a new consortium set up by Singapore’s Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*Star) to address challenges such as costs, regulatory compliance and processes to bring drugs from trials to markets.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> READ ALL AT</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/13-06-21/Pfizer_GSK_form_productivity_pact_with_Singapore_s_A_Star.aspx" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/13-06-21/Pfizer_GSK_form_productivity_pact_with_Singapore_s_A_Star.aspx</a><img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="212" id="irc_mi" src="http://www.research.a-star.edu.sg/common/img/about-biopolis.jpg" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box; margin-top: 91px;" width="300" /></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The&nbsp;<b>Agency for Science, Technology and Research</b>&nbsp;(<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbreviation" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Abbreviation">Abbreviation</a>:&nbsp;<b>A*STAR</b>;&nbsp;<a class="mw-redirect" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simplified_Chinese" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Simplified Chinese">Chinese</a>: 新加坡科技研究局) is a&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statutory_boards_of_the_Singapore_Government" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Statutory boards of the Singapore Government">statutory board</a>&nbsp;under the&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministry_of_Trade_and_Industry_%28Singapore%29" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Ministry of Trade and Industry (Singapore)">Ministry of Trade and Industry</a>&nbsp;of&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singapore" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Singapore">Singapore</a>. The Agency was established in 1991 to foster scientific research and talent for a knowledge-based Singapore.</p> <table class="toc" id="toc" style="border-bottom-style: solid; border-bottom-color: rgb(209, 209, 209); border-collapse: collapse; border-spacing: 0px; line-height: 1.6; margin: 0px 0px 24px; width: 730px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="padding: 5px 0px;"> &nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Established in 1991 as the former National Science and Technology Board (NSTB), A*STAR was established with the primary mission to raise the level of science and technology in Singapore.<span class="reference" id="cite_ref-history_1-1" style="font-size: 9px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;"><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agency_for_Science,_Technology_and_Research#cite_note-history-1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">[1]</a></span></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5;"> <span class="mw-headline" id="Leadership">Leadership</span></h2> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The current chairman of A*STAR is Mr.&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lim_Chuan_Poh" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Lim Chuan Poh">Lim Chuan Poh</a>. He was formerly the Permanent Secretary (Education) and the&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chief_of_Defence" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Chief of Defence">Chief of Defence Force</a>. Mr Lim took over the reins of A*STAR from Mr.&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Yeo" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Philip Yeo">Philip Yeo</a>, who later became Chairman of SPRING Singapore, on 1 April 2007.<span class="reference" id="cite_ref-Chang_2-0" style="font-size: 9px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;"><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agency_for_Science,_Technology_and_Research#cite_note-Chang-2" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">[2]</a></span></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The scientific leadership includes Tan Chorh Chuan,&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Radda" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="George Radda">George Radda</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney_Brenner" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Sydney Brenner">Sydney Brenner</a>,&nbsp;<a class="mw-redirect" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_P._Lane" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="David P. Lane">David Lane</a>, Charles Zukoski and used to include Prof Low Teck Seng. Prof Low Teck Seng left A*Star on 19 July 2012 to join the National Research Foundation of the Prime Minister’s Office.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5;"> <span class="mw-headline" id="A.2ASTAR_Entities">A*STAR Entities</span></h2> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The agency is made up of:</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <ul style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <b>The Biomedical Research Council (BMRC)</b>&nbsp;– Oversees public sector research activities in the biomedical sciences</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <b>The Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC)</b>&nbsp;– Oversees public sector research activities in the physical sciences &amp; engineering</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <b>The A*STAR Joint Council (A*JC)</b>&nbsp;– Promotes and supports interdisciplinary collaborations between biomedical sciences, and physical sciences &amp; engineering</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <b>The A*STAR Graduate Academy (A*GA)</b>&nbsp;– Administers science scholarships and other manpower development programs</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <b>Exploit Technologies Pte Ltd (ETPL)</b>&nbsp;– Manages the intellectual property created by research institutes in Singapore, and facilitates&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology_transfer" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Technology transfer">technology transfer</a>&nbsp;to industry</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <b>The Corporate Group</b>&nbsp;– Supports the rest of the organisation with finance, human resources, legal and other services</li> </ul> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The agency oversees 14 biomedical sciences, and physical sciences and engineering research institutes, and six consortia &amp; centre, which are located in&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biopolis" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Biopolis">Biopolis</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusionopolis" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Fusionopolis">Fusionopolis</a>, as well as their immediate vicinity.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> A*STAR supports Singapore’s key economic clusters by providing intellectual, human and industrial capital to its partners in industry. It also supports extramural research in the universities, hospitals, research centres, and with other local and international partners.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5;"> <span class="mw-headline" id="Research_Institutes_.26_Units">Research Institutes &amp; Units</span></h2> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <b>Biomedical Research Council</b></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The Biomedical Research Council (BMRC) oversees 7 research institutes and several other research units that focus on both basic as well as translational and clinical research to support the key industry clusters in&nbsp;<a class="mw-redirect" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomedical_Sciences" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Biomedical Sciences">Biomedical Sciences</a>,&nbsp;<a class="mw-redirect" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmaceuticals" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Pharmaceuticals">pharmaceuticals</a>, medical technology, biotechnology and healthcare services.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Having established a strong foundation in basic biomedical research capabilities, there is now an added focus on translating new knowledge and technologies created at the “benches” into new clinical applications for diagnosis and treatment that can one day be delivered at the “bedsides” of our hospitals and disease centres.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The research institutes and units under BMRC are:</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <ul style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bioinformatics_Institute&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Bioinformatics Institute (page does not exist)">Bioinformatics Institute</a>&nbsp;(BII)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bioprocessing_Technology_Institute&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Bioprocessing Technology Institute (page does not exist)">Bioprocessing Technology Institute</a>&nbsp;(BTI)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Experimental_Therapeutics_Centre&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Experimental Therapeutics Centre (page does not exist)">Experimental Therapeutics Centre</a>&nbsp;(ETC)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Singapore_Genome_Institute_of_Singapore&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Singapore Genome Institute of Singapore (page does not exist)">Genome Institute of Singapore</a>&nbsp;(GIS)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Institute_of_Bioengineering_and_Nanotechnology&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (page does not exist)">Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology</a>&nbsp;(IBN)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="external text" href="http://www.imb.a-star.edu.sg/php/main.php" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">Institute of Medical Biology</a>&nbsp;(IMB)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institute_of_Molecular_and_Cell_Biology_%28Singapore%29" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (Singapore)">Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology</a>&nbsp;(IMCB)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="external text" href="http://www.nrp.a-star.edu.sg/" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">Neuroscience Research Partnership</a>&nbsp;(NRP)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Singapore_Bioimaging_Consortium&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Singapore Bioimaging Consortium (page does not exist)">Singapore Bioimaging Consortium</a>&nbsp;(SBIC)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singapore_Immunology_Network" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Singapore Immunology Network">Singapore Immunology Network</a>&nbsp;(SIgN)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Singapore_Institute_for_Clinical_Sciences&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences (page does not exist)">Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences</a>&nbsp;(SICS)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Singapore_Stem_Cell_Consortium&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Singapore Stem Cell Consortium (page does not exist)">Singapore Stem Cell Consortium</a>&nbsp;(SSCC)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=A*STAR-NUS_Clinical_Imaging_Research_Centre&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="A*STAR-NUS Clinical Imaging Research Centre (page does not exist)">A*STAR-NUS Clinical Imaging Research Centre</a>&nbsp;(CIRC)</li> </ul> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The BMRC Research Institutes focus on building up core biomedical capabilities in the areas of bioprocessing; chemical synthesis; genomics and proteomics; molecular and cell biology; bioengineering and nanotechnology and computational biology. In addition, the Institute of Medical Biology (IMB) and Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences (SICS) focus on translational and clinical research.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <b>Science and Engineering Council</b></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> A*STAR’s Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) promotes public sector research and development in the physical sciences &amp; engineering.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> SERC manages seven research institutes and several state-of-the art centres and facilities with core competencies in a wide range of fields including communications, data storage, materials, chemicals, computational sciences, microelectronics, advanced manufacturing and metrology to tackle global technological challenges and create future industries from its headquarters at Fusionopolis, Singapore’s iconic hub for science and technology research.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The research institutes and units under SERC are:</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <ul style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_Storage_Institute" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Data Storage Institute">Data Storage Institute</a>&nbsp;(DSI)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Institute_of_Chemical_Engineering_and_Sciences&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Institute of Chemical Engineering and Sciences (page does not exist)">Institute of Chemical Engineering and Sciences</a>&nbsp;(ICES)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Institute_of_High_Performance_Computing&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Institute of High Performance Computing (page does not exist)">Institute of High Performance Computing</a>&nbsp;(IHPC)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Institute_of_Infocomm_Research&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Institute of Infocomm Research (page does not exist)">Institute of Infocomm Research</a>&nbsp;(I<span style="font-size: 9px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;">2</span>R)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Institute_of_Materials_Research_and_Engineering&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (page does not exist)">Institute of Materials Research and Engineering</a>&nbsp;(IMRE)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Institute_of_Microelectronics&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Institute of Microelectronics (page does not exist)">Institute of Microelectronics</a>&nbsp;(IME)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="new" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Singapore_Institute_of_Manufacturing_Technology&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (page does not exist)">Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology</a>&nbsp;(SIMTech)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <a class="mw-redirect" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Metrology_Centre" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="National Metrology Centre">National Metrology Centre</a>&nbsp;(NMC)</li> </ul> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The seamless integration of the research institutes is key to addressing industry needs, which may span multiple disciplines. To this end, SERC’s broad range of capabilities are in a unique position to develop new technologies in areas such as automotives, aerospace, energy, electronic healthcare and medical technology, nanotechnology, photonics, sensors and sensor networks.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> In July 2012, it was announced that A*STAR collaborates with Chinese language internet search provider&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baidu" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Baidu">Baidu</a>&nbsp;to open a joint laboratory, called the Baidu-I2R Research Centre (BIRC), which aims to develop language processing technologies.<span class="reference" id="cite_ref-3" style="font-size: 9px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;"><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agency_for_Science,_Technology_and_Research#cite_note-3" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">[3]</a></span></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5;"> <span class="mw-headline" id="Scholarships">Scholarships</span></h2> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Each year, the Agency gives out a number of scholarships and awards to young and aspiring scientists. These awards are meant to help Singapore achieve its goal of becoming a research hub by nurturing home-grown PhDs to serve both in the public sector and in industry. In 2008, a total of 101 scholarships were awarded to Bachelor of Science and PhD students who were to embark on their studies in overseas universities.<span class="reference" id="cite_ref-4" style="font-size: 9px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;"><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agency_for_Science,_Technology_and_Research#cite_note-4" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">[4]</a></span>&nbsp;The administration of these awards are governed by the A*Star Graduate Academy, some of which are listed below:</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <ul style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> National Science Scholarship (BS)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> National Science Scholarship (PhD)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> A*Star Graduate Scholarship</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> Singapore International Graduate Award (SINGA)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> Singapore International Pre-Graduate Award (SIPGA)</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> A*Star Pre-Graduate Award</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> A*Star International Fellowship</li> </ul> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5;"> <span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2> <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5;"> <span class="url"><a class="external text" href="http://www.a-star.edu.sg/" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">www.a-star.edu.sg</a></span></h2> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> &nbsp;</p> <div class="reflist references-column-width" style="-webkit-column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;"> <ol class="references" style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li id="cite_note-history-1" style="list-style-type: decimal;"> &nbsp;<span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://app.mti.gov.sg/default.asp?id=94" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">“Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)”</a>.&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministry_of_Trade_and_Industry_%28Singapore%29" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Ministry of Trade and Industry (Singapore)">Ministry of Trade and Industry</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 30 March 2011</span>.</span></li> <li id="cite_note-Chang-2" style="list-style-type: decimal;"> <span class="reference-text">Chang Ai-Lien, “S’pore’s science salesman turns sights on SMEs”,&nbsp;<i><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Straits_Times" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="The Straits Times">The Straits Times</a></i>, 21 October 2006</span></li> <li id="cite_note-3" style="list-style-type: decimal;"> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/1215799/1/.html" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">“Baidu, A*STAR open joint laboratory”</a>. Channel News Asia<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 26 July 2012</span>.</span></li> <li id="cite_note-4" style="list-style-type: decimal;"> <span class="reference-text"><a class="external text" href="http://www.a-star.edu.sg/a_star/189-Press-Release?iid=542" rel="nofollow" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">More Than 300 Young People Receive A*STAR Scholarships And Awards At A*STAR Scholarship Award Ceremony 2008, 25 July 08</a></span></li> </ol> </div> </div> Sun, 19 Jan 2014 02:38:43 GMT 2ce1e386-a3d5-49b3-aa69-8458a3d95991 PLASTIC SURGERY-Breast Lift Surgery-mastopexy http://amcrasto.wix.com/anthony-melvin-crasto/apps/blog/plastic-surgery-breast-lift-surgery-mastopexy <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5;"> <a href="http://newdrugapprovals.org/2013/06/22/plastic-surgery-breast-lift-surgery-mastopexy/" rel="bookmark" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Permanent Link to PLASTIC SURGERY-Breast Lift&nbsp;Surgery-mastopexy">PLASTIC SURGERY-Breast Lift&nbsp;Surgery-mastopexy</a></h2> <p class="entry-meta" style="margin: 5px 0px; color: rgb(153, 153, 153); font-size: 10px; text-transform: uppercase;"> &nbsp;</p> <div class="entry-summary"> <h1 style="font-weight: normal; margin: 0px 0px 30px; padding: 0px; clear: both; font-size: 40px; letter-spacing: -1px; line-height: 1.15;"> <img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="304" id="irc_mi" src="http://ancientrecipes.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/familysarcophagus2a.jpg?w=450&amp;h=304" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box; margin-top: 45px;" width="450" /></h1> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Breast lift, or mastopexy, surgery raises and firms the breasts by removing excess skin and tightening the surrounding tissue to reshape and support the new breast contour.</p> <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5;"> Breast lift procedure steps</h2> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> What happens during breast lift surgery? Your mastopexy surgery can be achieved through a variety of incision patterns and techniques. The appropriate technique for you will be determined based on:</p> <ul style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> Breast size and shape</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> The size and position of your areolas</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> The degree of breast sagging</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> Skin quality and elasticity as well as the amount of extra skin</li> </ul> <h4 style="font-weight: normal; margin: 0px 0px 15px; padding: 0px; font-size: 20px; line-height: 1.3;"> Step 1 – Anesthesia</h4> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Medications are administered for your comfort during breast lift surgery. The choices include intravenous sedation and general anesthesia. Your doctor will recommend the best choice for you.</p> <h4 style="font-weight: normal; margin: 0px 0px 15px; padding: 0px; font-size: 20px; line-height: 1.3;"> Step 2 – The incision</h4> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> There are three common incision patterns:</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <strong>Around the areola, . note-pics deleted</strong></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <strong>Around the areola and vertically down from the areola to the breast crease</strong></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <strong>Around the areola, vertically down from the breast crease and horizontally along the breast crease</strong></p> <h4 style="font-weight: normal; margin: 0px 0px 15px; padding: 0px; font-size: 20px; line-height: 1.3;"> Step 3 – Reshaping your breasts</h4> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> After your doctor makes the incisions:</p> <ul style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> The underlying breast tissue is lifted and reshaped to improve breast contour and firmness.</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> The nipple and areola are repositioned to a natural, more youthful height.</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> If necessary, enlarged areolas are reduced by excising skin at the perimeter.</li> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> Excess breast skin is removed to compensate for a loss of elasticity.</li> </ul> <h4 style="font-weight: normal; margin: 0px 0px 15px; padding: 0px; font-size: 20px; line-height: 1.3;"> Step 4 – Closing the incisions</h4> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> After your breasts are reshaped and excess skin is removed, the remaining skin is tightened as the incisions are closed.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Some incision lines resulting from breast lifts are concealed in the natural breast contours; however, others are visible on the breast surface. Incision lines are permanent, but in most cases will fade and significantly improve over time.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Sutures are layered deep within the breast tissue to create and support the newly shaped breasts. Sutures, skin adhesives and/or surgical tape may be used to close the skin.</p> <h4 style="font-weight: normal; margin: 0px 0px 15px; padding: 0px; font-size: 20px; line-height: 1.3;"> Step 5 – See the results</h4> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> The results of your breast lift surgery are immediately visible. Over time, post-surgical swelling will resolve and incision lines will fade.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Satisfaction with your new image should continue to grow as you recover and realize the fulfillment of your goal for breasts which have been restored to a more youthful and uplifted position.</p> <div class="sharedaddy sd-rating-enabled sd-like-enabled sd-sharing-enabled" id="jp-post-flair" style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; clear: both; zoom: 1; border-top-left-radius: 0px !important; border-top-right-radius: 0px !important; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px !important; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px !important;"> <div class="sharedaddy sd-sharing-enabled" style="clear: both; zoom: 1; border-top-left-radius: 0px !important; border-top-right-radius: 0px !important; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px !important; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px !important;"> <div class="robots-nocontent sd-block sd-social sd-social-icon-text sd-sharing" style="border-top-left-radius: 0px !important; border-top-right-radius: 0px !important; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px !important; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px !important; zoom: 1; border-top-width: 1px; border-top-style: solid; border-top-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.129412); padding: 10px 0px 5px; margin: 0px; width: 730px;"> <br /> <div class="sd-content" style="width: 599.5px; float: right; margin: -2px 0px 0px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); line-height: 19px; border-top-left-radius: 0px !important; border-top-right-radius: 0px !important; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px !important; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px !important;"> <ul style="margin: 0px; list-style: none; border: none; background-image: none; zoom: 1; padding: 0px !important;"> <li class="share-press-this" style="list-style: none; border: none; background-image: none; float: left; display: block; margin: 0px 5px 5px 0px !important; padding: 0px !important;"> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Sun, 19 Jan 2014 02:37:04 GMT d731a481-6a70-4ce6-9a17-992ac196325d FDA Approves Pediatric Indication for Astellas’ Mycamine (micafungin sodium) for Injection http://amcrasto.wix.com/anthony-melvin-crasto/apps/blog/fda-approves-pediatric-indication-for-astellas-mycamine <h2 style="margin: 0px 0px 2px; padding: 0px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 1.5; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif;"> <a href="http://newdrugapprovals.org/2013/06/25/fda-approves-pediatric-indication-for-astellas-mycamine-micafungin-sodium-for-injection/" rel="bookmark" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Permanent Link to FDA Approves Pediatric Indication for Astellas’ Mycamine (micafungin sodium) for&nbsp;Injection">FDA Approves Pediatric Indication for Astellas’ Mycamine (micafungin sodium) for&nbsp;Injection</a></h2> <p class="entry-meta" style="margin: 5px 0px; color: rgb(153, 153, 153); font-size: 10px; text-transform: uppercase; font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif;"> &nbsp;</p> <div class="entry-summary" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; line-height: 19px;"> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Micafungin.svg" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;"><img alt="File:Micafungin.svg" data-pinit="registered" height="333" src="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Micafungin.svg/800px-Micafungin.svg.png" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" width="480" /></a></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> micafungin sodium</p> <ul style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <div> C56-H70-N9-O23-S.Na </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> 1292.265 </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> Fujisawa (Originator), Merck &amp; Co. (Codevelopment) <a href="http://www.chemdrug.com/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;"><img alt="" src="http://www.chemdrug.com/images/space.gif" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" /></a> </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> Antifungal Agents, ANTIINFECTIVE THERAPY, 1,3-beta-Glucan Synthase Inhibitors, Echinocandins </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> Launched-2002 </div> </li> </ul> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> {5-[(1<i>S</i>,2<i>S</i>)-2-[(3<i>S</i>,6<i>S</i>,9<i>S</i>,11<i>R</i>,15<i>S</i>,18<i>S</i>,20<i>R</i>,21<i>R</i>,24<i>S</i>,25<i>S</i>,26<i>S</i>)-3-[(1<i>R</i>)-2-carbamoyl-1-hydroxyethyl]-11,20,21,25-tetrahydroxy-15-[(1<i>R</i>)-1-hydroxyethyl]-26-methyl-2,5,8,14,17,23-hexaoxo-18-[(4-{5-[4-(pentyloxy)phenyl]-1,2-oxazol-3-yl}benzene)amido]-1,4,7,13,16,22-hexaazatricyclo[22.3.0.0<span style="font-size: 9px; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; top: -0.5em;">9,13</span>]heptacosan-6-yl]-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-2-hydroxyphenyl}oxidanesulfonic acid</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="208" id="il_fi" src="http://3.imimg.com/data3/QF/HA/MY-6476484/micafungin-sodium-mycamine-250x250.jpg" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" width="242" /></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> June 24, 2013 , Astellas Pharma US, Inc. (“Astellas”), a U.S. subsidiary of Tokyo-based Astellas Pharma Inc. (Tokyo: 4503), announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved its Supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for the use of MYCAMINE&reg; (micafungin sodium) for injection by intravenous infusion for the treatment of pediatric patients four months and older with candidemia, acute disseminated candidiasis, Candida peritonitis and abscesses, esophageal candidiasis, and prophylaxis of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT).</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <a href="http://www.drugs.com/newdrugs/fda-approves-pediatric-indication-astellas-mycamine-micafungin-sodium-3827.html" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;">http://www.drugs.com/newdrugs/fda-approves-pediatric-indication-astellas-mycamine-micafungin-sodium-3827.html</a></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <b>Micafungin</b>&nbsp;(trade name&nbsp;<b>Mycamine</b>) is an&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echinocandin" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Echinocandin">echinocandin</a>&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antifungal_drug" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Antifungal drug">antifungal drug</a>&nbsp;developed by&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astellas_Pharma" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Astellas Pharma">Astellas Pharma</a>. It inhibits the production of<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-glucan" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Beta-glucan">beta-1,3-glucan</a>, an essential component of fungal&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_walls" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Cell walls">cell walls</a>. Micafungin is administered&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intravenously" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Intravenously">intravenously</a>. It received final approval from the&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Food_and_Drug_Administration" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="U.S. Food and Drug Administration">U.S. Food and Drug Administration</a>&nbsp;on March 16, 2005, and gained approval in the&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="European Union">European Union</a>&nbsp;on April 25, 2008.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Micafungin is indicated for the treatment of&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candidemia" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Candidemia">candidemia</a>, acute disseminated&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candidiasis" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Candidiasis">candidiasis</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candida_(genus)" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Candida (genus)"><i>Candida</i></a>&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peritonitis" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Peritonitis">peritonitis</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abscesses" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Abscesses">abscesses</a>&nbsp;and<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esophageal_candidiasis" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Esophageal candidiasis">esophageal candidiasis</a>. Since January 23, 2008, micafungin has been approved for the&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prophylaxis" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Prophylaxis">prophylaxis</a>&nbsp;of&nbsp;<i>Candida</i>&nbsp;infections in patients undergoing&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hematopoietic_stem_cell_transplantation" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;" title="Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation">hematopoietic stem cell transplantation</a>&nbsp;(HSCT).</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> Micafungin works by way of concentration-dependent inhibition of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase resulting in reduced formation of 1,3-beta-D-glucan, which is an essential polysaccharide comprising one-third of the majority of&nbsp;<i>Candida</i>&nbsp;spp. cell walls. This decreased glucan production leads to osmotic instability and thus cellular lysis</p> <ul style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> Micafungin sodium, FK-463, Mycamine, Funguard,208538-73-2</li> </ul> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 10px;"> <img alt="" data-pinit="registered" height="492" id="il_fi" src="http://www.chemdrug.com/databases/SYNTHESIS/SYN/26/26363401a.gif" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" width="362" /></p> <ul style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> <div> The synthesis of FK-463 can be performed as follows: The enzymatic deacylation of FR-901379 with Streptomyces anulatas No. 4811, S. anulatas No. 8703, Streptomyces strain No. 6907 or A. utahensis IFO13244 gives the deacylated lipopeptide FR-179642 (1), which is then reacylated with 1-[4-[5-(4-pentyloxyphenyl)isoxazol-3-yl]benzoyl]benzotriazole 3-oxide (VI) by means of dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) in DMF. The acylating compound (VI) can be obtained as follows: The cyclization of 4-pentyloxyphenylacetylene (I) with 4-(hydroxyiminomethyl)benzoic acid methyl ester (II) by means of triethylamine in hot THF gives 4-[5-(4-pentyloxyphenyl)isoxazol-3-yl]benzoic acid methyl ester (III), which is hydrolyzed with NaOH in hot THF/water yielding the corresponding free acid (IV). Finally, this compound is condensed with 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (V) by means of 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDMCA) in dichloromethane. <a href="http://www.chemdrug.com/" style="color: rgb(12, 83, 144); text-decoration: none;"><img alt="" src="http://www.chemdrug.com/images/space.gif" style="border: 4px solid rgb(238, 238, 238); height: auto; max-width: 100%; vertical-align: middle; box-sizing: border-box;" /></a> </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> Fromtling, R.A.; Castr, Drugs Fut 1998, 23, 12, 1273 </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> &nbsp; </div> <div> The synthesis of FK-463 can be performed as follows: The enzymatic deacylation of FR-901379 with Streptomyces anulatas No. 4811, S. anulatas No. 8703, Streptomyces strain No. 6907 or A. utahensis IFO13244 gives the deacylated lipopeptide FR-179642 (1), which is then reacylated with 1-[4-[5-(4-pentyloxyphenyl)isoxazol-3-yl]benzoyl]benzotriazole 3-oxide (VI) by means of dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) in DMF. The acylating compound (VI) can be obtained as follows: The cyclization of 4-pentyloxyphenylacetylene (I) with 4-(hydroxyiminomethyl)benzoic acid methyl ester (II) by means of triethylamine in hot THF gives 4-[5-(4-pentyloxyphenyl)isoxazol-3-yl]benzoic acid methyl ester (III), which is hydrolyzed with NaOH in hot THF/water yielding the corresponding free acid (IV). Finally, this compound is condensed with 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (V) by means of 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDMCD) in dichloromethane. </div> </li> </ul> <ul style="margin: 0px 0px 14px 36px; padding: 0px;"> <li style="list-style-type: square;"> 38th Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother (Sept 24 1998, San Diego)1998,:Abst F-145</li> </ul> </div> Sun, 19 Jan 2014 02:34:58 GMT c20c092a-06ac-4968-80e9-a69e2341a11d